Pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus

Insulin resistance means that the body's cells do not respond right when insulin is present. Unlike type 1 diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance is generally "post-receptor", which means it is a problem with the cells that respond to insulin rather than a problem with insulin production.

Another important factor that contributes:

increased hepatic glucose production (eg, from glycogen - glucose conversion>), especially at times incorrect (a common cause is the insane level of insulin, such as the level of control this function in liver cells) decreased insulin-mediated glucose transport in (primarily) muscle and adipose tissues (receptor and post-receptor defect) beta-cell dysfunction, loss of early phase insulin release in response to hyperglycemic stimuli. This is a more complex problem than type 1, but sometimes it is easier to treat, especially in the early years when insulin is often still produced internally. Type 2 may not be known for many years before diagnosis, since symptoms are usually mild (eg, no ketoacidosis, coma, etc.) and can be sporadic. However, severe complications may result from type 2 diabetes is not properly managed, including kidney failure, erectile dysfunction, blindness, slow healing wounds (including surgical incision), and arterial disease, including coronary artery disease. The onset of type 2 has been most common in middle age and later life, although it is more often seen in adolescents and young adults because of the increased child obesity and inactivity. This type of diabetes called Mody increasingly seen in adolescents, but is classified as diabetes due to specific causes and not as type 2 diabetes.

Diabetes mellitus type 2 is the etiology is unknown (ie, origin). Diabetes mellitus with known etiology, such as secondary to other diseases, known gene defects, trauma or surgery, or medication effects, more appropriately called secondary diabetes mellitus or diabetes due to specific causes. Examples include diabetes mellitus as Mody or caused by hemochromatosis, pancreatic insufficiencies, or certain medications (eg, long-term steroid use).

According to the CDC, approximately 23,613,000 people in the United States, or 8% of the population, have diabetes. Total prevalence of diabetes increased 13.5% from 2005-2007. It is estimated that only 24% of diabetes is undiagnosed, down from an estimated 30% in 2005 and from 50% previously estimated at ca 1995.

Approximately 90-95% of all North American cases of type 2 diabetes, and about 20% of the population aged over 65 have type 2 diabetes mellitus. Fraction of type 2 diabetics in other parts of the world varies substantially, almost certainly for environmental and lifestyle reasons, though it is not known in detail. Diabetes affects more than 150 million people around the world and this number is expected to double by 2025 .. About 55 percent of type 2 diabetes is obesity, obesity causes chronic increase of insulin resistance that can develop into diabetes, most likely due to fatty tissue (especially those in the abdomen around the internal organs) is a (recently identified) source of some other chemical signal network (hormone and cytokines). Other studies have shown that obesity causes type 2 diabetes as a result of changes in the metabolism of guard cells and other crazy behavior of insulin resistance. However, genetics plays a relatively minor role in the broad occurrence of type 2 diabetes. This can be logically deduced from a large increase in the occurrence of type 2 diabetes are correlated with significant changes in western lifestyles.

Diabetes mellitus type 2 is often associated with obesity, hypertension, high cholesterol (combined hyperlipidemia), and with the condition often called metabolic syndrome (also known as Syndrome X, Reavan syndrome, or CHAOS). secondary causes of type 2 diabetes mellitus are: acromegaly, Cushing syndrome, thyrotoxicosis, pheochromocytoma, pancreatitis, cancer, chronic and medicine.
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